Explore our scientific contributions.

Selection of Key Journal Articles

[2022]  [2021]  [2020]  [2019]  [2018]  [2017]  [Earlier]


  1. Liu, C., Su, Z. W., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. Q. (2022). Service-oriented industrial internet of things gateway for cloud manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 73, 14. [DOI]
  2. Lu, Y., Wang, L., Bao, J., Lastra, J. M., & Ameri, F. (2022). Semantic artificial intelligence for smart manufacturing automation. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 102333. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., Zheng, H., Chand, S., Xia, W., Liu, Z., Xu, X., … & Bao, J. (2022). Outlook on human-centric manufacturing towards Industry 5.0. Journal of Manufacturing Systems62, 612-627. [DOI]



  1. Xu, X., Lu, Y., Vogel-Heuser, B., & Wang, L. (2021). Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0—Inception, conception and perception. Journal of Manufacturing Systems61, 530-535. [DOI]
  2. Aheleroff, S., Mostashiri, N., Xu, X., & Zhong, R. Y. (2021). Mass Personalisation as a Service in Industry 4.0: A Resilient Response Case Study. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 50, 15. [DOI]
  3. Qin, Z., & Lu, Y. (2021). Self-organizing manufacturing network: A paradigm towards smart manufacturing in mass personalization. Journal of Manufacturing Systems60, 35-47. [DOI]
  4. Aheleroff, S., Xu, X., Zhong, R. Y., & Lu, Y. (2021). Digital twin as a service (DTaaS) in industry 4.0: an architecture reference model. Advanced Engineering Informatics47, 101225. [DOI] (🏆 ESI Highly Cited Paper)
  5. Lu, Y., Adrados, J. S., Chand, S. S., & Wang, L. (2021). Humans Are Not Machines—Anthropocentric Human–Machine Symbiosis for Ultra-Flexible Smart Manufacturing. Engineering, 7(6), 734–737. [DOI]
  6. Huang, H., Yang, L., Wang, Y., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2021). Digital Twin-driven online anomaly detection for an automation system based on edge intelligence. Journal of Manufacturing Systems59, 138-150. [DOI]
  7. Liu, C., Zheng, P., & Xu, X. Digitalisation and servitisation of machine tools in the era of Industry 4.0: a review. International Journal of Production Research, 33. [DOI]
  8. Zhu, Z. X., Xi, X. L., Xu, X., & Cai, Y. L. (2021). Digital Twin-driven machining process for thin-walled part manufacturing. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 59, 453-466. [DOI]
  9. Fan, W., Zheng, L. Y., Ji, W., Xu, X., Lu, Y. Q., & Wang, L. H. (2021). A machining accuracy informed adaptive positioning method for finish machining of assembly interfaces of large-scale aircraft components. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 67, 19. [DOI]


  1. Lu, Y. Q., Xu, X., & Wang, L. H. (2020). Smart manufacturing process and system automation – A critical review of the standards and envisioned scenarios. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 56, 312-325. [DOI] (🏆 ESI Highly Cited Paper)
  2. Fan, W., Zheng, L., Ji, W., Xu, X., Wang, L., Lu, Y., & Zhao, X. (2020). Function block-based closed-loop adaptive machining for assembly interfaces of large-scale aircraft components. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing66, 101994. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., & Asghar, M. (2020). Semantic communications between distributed cyber-physical systems towards collaborative automation for smart manufacturing. Journal of Manufacturing Systems55, 348-359. [DOI]
  4. Flores, E., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2020). Human Capital 4.0: a workforce competence typology for Industry 4.0. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. [DOI]
  5. Ye, X., & Lu, Y. (2020). Automatic Extraction of Engineering Rules From Unstructured Text: A Natural Language Processing Approach. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering20(3). [DOI]
  6. Aheleroff, S., Xu, X., Lu, Y., Aristizabal, M., Pablo Velásquez, J., Joa, B., & Valencia, Y. (2020). IoT-enabled smart appliances under industry 4.0: A case study. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 43, 101043. [DOI(🏆 ESI Highly Cited Paper)
  7. Lu, Y., Liu, C., Wang, K., Huang, H. & Xu, X. (2020) Digital Twin-driven smart manufacturing: Connotation, reference model, applications and research issues. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 61. [DOI(🏆 RCIM Best Paper award(2021), ESI High Cited Paper, ESI Hot Cited Paper)


  1. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2019). Cloud-based manufacturing equipment and big data analytics to enable on-demand manufacturing services. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 57, 92-102. [DOI] (🏆 ESI High Cited Paper)
  2. Liu, C., Vengayil, H., Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2019). A Cyber-Physical Machine Tools Platform using OPC UA and MTConnect. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 51, 61-74. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., Peng, T., & Xu, X. (2019). Energy-efficient cyber-physical production network: Architecture and technologies. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 129, 56-66. [DOI]
  4. Lu, Y., Wang, H., & Xu, X. (2019). ManuService ontology: A product data model for service-oriented business interactions in a cloud manufacturing environment. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing30(1), 317-334. [DOI] (🏆 ESI High Cited Paper)


  1. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2018). Resource virtualization: A core technology for developing cyber-physical production systems. Journal of manufacturing systems47, 128-140. [DOI]
  2. Yu, C., Zhang, W., Xu, X., Ji, Y., & Yu, S. (2018). Data mining based multi-level aggregate service planning for cloud manufacturing. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 29 (6), 1351-1361. [DOI]
  3. Liu, C., Vengayil, H., Zhong, R. Y., & Xu, X. (2018). A systematic development method for cyber-physical machine tools. JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 48, 13-24. [DOI]


  1. Zhong, R. Y., Xu, X., Klotz, E., & Newman, S. T. (2017). Intelligent Manufacturing in the Context of Industry 4.0: A Review. ENGINEERING, 3 (5), 616-630.  [DOI]
  2. Xu, X. (2017). Machine Tool 4.0 for the new era of manufacturing. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 92 (5-8), 1893-1900.  [DOI]
  3. Liu, C., Cao, S., Tse, W., & Xu, X. (2017). Augmented Reality-assisted Intelligent Window for Cyber-Physical Machine Tools. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 44, 280-286. [DOI]
  4. Zheng, P., Lu, Y., Xu, X., & Xie, S. Q. (2017). A system framework for OKP product planning in a cloud-based design environment. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 45, 73-85. [DOI]
  5. Liu, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, L., Wang, L., & Zhong, R. Y. (2017). Workload-based multi-task scheduling in cloud manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 45, 3-20. [DOI]
  6. Zheng, P., Xu, X., Yu, S., & Liu, C. (2017). Personalized product configuration framework in an adaptable open architecture product platform. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 43 (Part 3), 422-435. [DOI]
  7. Schlechtendahl, J., Kretschmer, F., Sang, Z., Lechler, A., & Xu, X. (2017). Extended study of network capability for cloud based control systems. Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 43, 89-95. [DOI]
  8. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2017). A semantic web-based framework for service composition in a cloud manufacturing environment. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 42, 69-81. [DOI]


  1. Liu, Y., & Xu, X. (2016). Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing: A comparative analysis. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 139 (3), 034701-034701. [DOI]
  2. Wang, X. V., & Xu, X. W. (2015). A collaborative product data exchange environment based on STEP. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING, 28 (1), 75-86. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., Xu, X., & Xu, J. (2014). Development of a Hybrid Manufacturing Cloud. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 33 (4), 551-566. [DOI]
  4. Ou, L.-M., & Xu, X. (2013). Relationship matrix based automatic assembly sequence generation from a CAD model. Computer-Aided Design, 45 (7), 1053-1067. [DOI]
  5. Xu, X. (2012). From cloud computing to cloud manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 28 (1), 75-86. [DOI] (🏆 Inaugural RCIM Best Paper award, 2018)
  6. Ridwan, F., Xu, X., & Liu, G. (2012). A framework for machining optimisation based on STEP-NC. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 23 (3), 423-441. [DOI]
  7. Xu, X., Wang, L., & Newman, S. T. (2011). Computer-aided process planning – A critical review of recent developments and future trends. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 24 (1), 1-31. [DOI]
  8. Xu, X. W., Wang, H., Mao, J., Newman, S. T., Kramer, T. R., Proctor, F. M., & Michaloski, J. L. (2005). STEP-compliant NC research: The search for intelligent CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC integration. International Journal of Production Research, 43 (17), 3703-3743. [DOI]


Zhao, Y., Brown, R., Kramer, T. R., & Xu, X. W. (2011). Information Modeling for Interoperable Dimensional Metrology (First ed.). 236 Gray’s Inn Road, London, WC1X 8HL, UK: Springer Veralag. [PDF]

Xu (ed), X. (2009). Advanced Design and Manufacturing Based on STEP (First ed.). X. Xu, & A. Y. Nee (Eds.), Ashbourne House, The Guildway, Old Portsmouth Road, Guildford, Surrey GU3 1LP, UK: Springer. [PDF]

Xu, X. (2009). Integrating Advanced Computer-Aided Design, Manufacturing, and Numerical Control: Principles and Implementations (1st). IGI Global. Main Office. 701 E. Chocolate Avenue. Hershey, PA 17033, USA: IGI Global. Pages: 424. [PDF]

Book Chapters

Ahel Eroff, S., Polzar, J., Huang, H., Zhu, Z., Tomzik, D., Lu, Y., … Xu, X. (2020). Smart manufacturing based on Digital Twin technologies. In C. Machado, J. P. Davim (Eds.) Industry 4.0 Challenges, Trends, and Solutions in Management and Engineering (pp. ). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group. [DOI]

Xu, X., Wang, L., Xu, J., Wang, X., & Proctor, F. M. (2019). Manufacturing Systems. In Handbook of Manufacturing (pp. 609-708). [DOI]

Hinze, C., Tomzik, D. A., Lechler, A., Xu, X. W., & Verl, A. (2019). Control Architecture for Industrial Robotics based on Container Virtualization. In Tagungsband des 4. Kongresses Montage Handhabung Industrieroboter (pp. 64-73). [DOI]

Zheng, P., Xu, X., & Xie, S. Q. (2015). Integrate Product Planning Process of OKP Companies in the Cloud Manufacturing Environment. In Advances in Production Management Systems: Innovative Production Management Towards Sustainable Growth (Vol. 460, pp. 420-426). [PDF]

  • Hsiao, H. -H., Wang, W. W. -L., & Xu, X. W. (2013). FuzEmotion-A Backward Kansei Engineering Based Tool for Assessing and Confirming Gender Inclination of Modern Cellular Phones. In Emotional Engineering vol. 2 (pp. 73-93). [PDF]
  • Wang, W. W. -L., Hsiao, H. -H., & Xu, X. W. (2013). ProEmotion—A Tool to Tell Mobile Phone’s Gender. In Emotional Engineering vol. 2 (pp. 95-106). [PDF]

Ou, L., & Xu, X. W. (2013). Towards a Cognitive Assembly System. In D. Zhang, & Z. Gao (Eds.), Recent Developments in Manufacturing Robotic Systems and Automation (First ed., pp. 140-161). Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., Oak Park, IL 60301-0446, USA: Bentham Science.  [PDF Free Sample]

Wang, X. V., & Xu, X. W. (2013). ICMS: A Cloud-Based Manufacturing System. In Cloud Manufacturing (pp. 1-22). [PDF]

Zhao, Y., Brown, R., Kramer, T. R., & Xu, X. (2011). Dimensional Metrology for Manufacturing Quality Control. In Information Modeling for Interoperable Dimensional Metrology (pp. 275-307). Springer London. [PDF]

  • Kramer, T., & Xu, X. (2009). STEP in a Nutshell. In Advanced Design and Manufacturing Based on STEP (pp. 1-22). [PDF]
  • Michaloski, J., Kramer, T., Proctor, F., Xu, X., Venkatesh, S., & Odendahl, D. (2009). STEPNC++ – An Effective Tool for Feature-based CAM/CNC. In Advanced Design and Manufacturing Based on STEP (pp. 79-104). [PDF]

Qiu, X., & Xu, X. W. (2009). Information Sharing in Digital Manufacturing Based on STEP and XML. In L. Wang, & A. Y. C. Nee (Eds.), Collaborative Design and Planning for Digital Manufacturing (First ed., pp. 293-316). UK: Springer. [PDF]