Journal Articles

[2022]  [2021]  [2020]  [2019]  [2018]  [2017]  [Earlier]


  1. Liu, C., Su, Z. W., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. Q. (2022). Service-oriented industrial internet of things gateway for cloud manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 73, 14. [DOI]
  2. Lu, Y., Wang, L., Bao, J., Lastra, J. M., & Ameri, F. (2022). Semantic artificial intelligence for smart manufacturing automation. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 102333. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., Zheng, H., Chand, S., Xia, W., Liu, Z., Xu, X., … & Bao, J. (2022). Outlook on human-centric manufacturing towards Industry 5.0. Journal of Manufacturing Systems62, 612-627. [DOI]



  1. Xu, X., Lu, Y., Vogel-Heuser, B., & Wang, L. (2021). Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0—Inception, conception and perception. Journal of Manufacturing Systems61, 530-535. [DOI]
  2. Aheleroff, S., Mostashiri, N., Xu, X., & Zhong, R. Y. (2021). Mass Personalisation as a Service in Industry 4.0: A Resilient Response Case Study. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 50, 15. [DOI]
  3. Qin, Z., & Lu, Y. (2021). Self-organizing manufacturing network: A paradigm towards smart manufacturing in mass personalization. Journal of Manufacturing Systems60, 35-47. [DOI]
  4. Aheleroff, S., Xu, X., Zhong, R. Y., & Lu, Y. (2021). Digital twin as a service (DTaaS) in industry 4.0: an architecture reference model. Advanced Engineering Informatics47, 101225. [DOI] (ESI Highly Cited Paper)
  5. Lu, Y., Adrados, J. S., Chand, S. S., & Wang, L. (2021). Humans Are Not Machines—Anthropocentric Human–Machine Symbiosis for Ultra-Flexible Smart Manufacturing. Engineering, 7(6), 734–737. [DOI]
  6. Huang, H., Yang, L., Wang, Y., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2021). Digital Twin-driven online anomaly detection for an automation system based on edge intelligence. Journal of Manufacturing Systems59, 138-150. [DOI]
  7. Liu, C., Zheng, P., & Xu, X. Digitalisation and servitisation of machine tools in the era of Industry 4.0: a review. International Journal of Production Research, 33. [DOI]
  8. Zhu, Z. X., Xi, X. L., Xu, X., & Cai, Y. L. (2021). Digital Twin-driven machining process for thin-walled part manufacturing. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 59, 453-466. [DOI]
  9. Fan, W., Zheng, L. Y., Ji, W., Xu, X., Lu, Y. Q., & Wang, L. H. (2021). A machining accuracy informed adaptive positioning method for finish machining of assembly interfaces of large-scale aircraft components. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 67, 19. [DOI]


  1. Lu, Y. Q., Xu, X., & Wang, L. H. (2020). Smart manufacturing process and system automation – A critical review of the standards and envisioned scenarios. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 56, 312-325. [DOI] (ESI Highly Cited Paper)
  2. Fan, W., Zheng, L., Ji, W., Xu, X., Wang, L., Lu, Y., & Zhao, X. (2020). Function block-based closed-loop adaptive machining for assembly interfaces of large-scale aircraft components. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing66, 101994. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., & Asghar, M. (2020). Semantic communications between distributed cyber-physical systems towards collaborative automation for smart manufacturing. Journal of Manufacturing Systems55, 348-359. [DOI]
  4. Flores, E., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2020). Human Capital 4.0: a workforce competence typology for Industry 4.0. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. [DOI]
  5. Ye, X., & Lu, Y. (2020). Automatic Extraction of Engineering Rules From Unstructured Text: A Natural Language Processing Approach. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering20(3). [DOI]
  6. Aheleroff, S., Xu, X., Lu, Y., Aristizabal, M., Pablo Velásquez, J., Joa, B., & Valencia, Y. (2020). IoT-enabled smart appliances under industry 4.0: A case study. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 43, 101043. [DOI] (ESI Highly Cited Paper)
  7. Lu, Y., Liu, C., Wang, K., Huang, H. & Xu, X. (2020) Digital Twin-driven smart manufacturing: Connotation, reference model, applications and research issues. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 61. [DOI] (ESI High Cited Paper, ESI Hot Cited Paper)


  1. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2019). Cloud-based manufacturing equipment and big data analytics to enable on-demand manufacturing services. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 57, 92-102. [DOI] (ESI High Cited Paper)
  2. Liu, C., Vengayil, H., Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2019). A Cyber-Physical Machine Tools Platform using OPC UA and MTConnect. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 51, 61-74. [DOI]
  3. Lu, Y., Peng, T., & Xu, X. (2019). Energy-efficient cyber-physical production network: Architecture and technologies. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 129, 56-66. [DOI]
  4. Lu, Y., Wang, H., & Xu, X. (2019). ManuService ontology: A product data model for service-oriented business interactions in a cloud manufacturing environment. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing30(1), 317-334. [DOI] (ESI High Cited Paper)


  1. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2018). Resource virtualization: A core technology for developing cyber-physical production systems. Journal of manufacturing systems47, 128-140. [DOI]
  2. Yu, C., Zhang, W., Xu, X., Ji, Y., & Yu, S. (2018). Data mining based multi-level aggregate service planning for cloud manufacturing. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 29 (6), 1351-1361. [DOI]
  3. Liu, C., Vengayil, H., Zhong, R. Y., & Xu, X. (2018). A systematic development method for cyber-physical machine tools. JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 48, 13-24. [DOI]


  1. Zhong, R. Y., Xu, X., Klotz, E., & Newman, S. T. (2017). Intelligent Manufacturing in the Context of Industry 4.0: A Review. ENGINEERING, 3 (5), 616-630.  [DOI]
  2. Xu, X. (2017). Machine Tool 4.0 for the new era of manufacturing. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 92 (5-8), 1893-1900.  [DOI]
  3. Liu, C., Cao, S., Tse, W., & Xu, X. (2017). Augmented Reality-assisted Intelligent Window for Cyber-Physical Machine Tools. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 44, 280-286. [DOI]
  4. Zheng, P., Lu, Y., Xu, X., & Xie, S. Q. (2017). A system framework for OKP product planning in a cloud-based design environment. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 45, 73-85. [DOI]
  5. Liu, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, L., Wang, L., & Zhong, R. Y. (2017). Workload-based multi-task scheduling in cloud manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 45, 3-20. [DOI]
  6. Zheng, P., Xu, X., Yu, S., & Liu, C. (2017). Personalized product configuration framework in an adaptable open architecture product platform. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 43 (Part 3), 422-435. [DOI]
  7. Schlechtendahl, J., Kretschmer, F., Sang, Z., Lechler, A., & Xu, X. (2017). Extended study of network capability for cloud based control systems. Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 43, 89-95. [DOI]
  8. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2017). A semantic web-based framework for service composition in a cloud manufacturing environment. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 42, 69-81. [DOI]


  1. Liu, Y., & Xu, X. (2016). Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing: A comparative analysis. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 139 (3), 034701-034701. [DOI]
  2. Yu, C., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2015). Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Cyber-Physical Systems and Cloud Manufacturing – Concepts and relationships. Manufacturing Letters, 6, 5-9. [DOI]
  3. Wang, X. V., & Xu, X. W. (2015). A collaborative product data exchange environment based on STEP. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING, 28 (1), 75-86. [DOI]
  4. Lu, Y., Xu, X., & Xu, J. (2014). Development of a Hybrid Manufacturing Cloud. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 33 (4), 551-566. [DOI]
  5. Ou, L.-M., & Xu, X. (2013). Relationship matrix based automatic assembly sequence generation from a CAD model. Computer-Aided Design, 45 (7), 1053-1067. [DOI]
  6. Xu, X. (2012). From cloud computing to cloud manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 28 (1), 75-86. [DOI]
  7. Ridwan, F., Xu, X., & Liu, G. (2012). A framework for machining optimisation based on STEP-NC. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 23 (3), 423-441. [DOI]
  8. Xu, X., Wang, L., & Newman, S. T. (2011). Computer-aided process planning – A critical review of recent developments and future trends. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 24 (1), 1-31. [DOI]
  9. Xu, X. W., Wang, H., Mao, J., Newman, S. T., Kramer, T. R., Proctor, F. M., & Michaloski, J. L. (2005). STEP-compliant NC research: The search for intelligent CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC integration. International Journal of Production Research, 43 (17), 3703-3743. [DOI]

Conference Papers

[2021]  [2020]  [2019]  [Earlier]


  1. Qin, Z., & Lu, Y. (2021, June). Multi-Agent-Based Self-Organizing Manufacturing Network Towards Mass Personalization. In International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (Vol. 85079, p. V002T07A016). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


  1. Ramesh, A., Qin, Z., & Lu, Y. (2020, September). Digital Thread Enabled Manufacturing Automation Towards Mass Personalization. In International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (Vol. 84263, p. V002T07A008). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  2. Xia, W., Goh, J., Cortes, C. A., Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2020, August). Decentralized coordination of autonomous AGVs for flexible factory automation in the context of Industry 4.0. In 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE) (pp. 488-493). IEEE.
  3. Letford, F., Rogers, M., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2020, August). Machine Learning to Empower a Cyber-Physical Machine Tool. In 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE) (pp. 989-994). IEEE.
  4. Flores, E., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2020, August). Human Cyber-Physical Systems: A skill-based correlation between humans and machines. In 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE) (pp. 1313-1318). IEEE.
  5. Qin, Z., Lu, Y., Zhang, H., Liu, X., & Zheng, L. (2020, September). A Reconfigurable Jig Assistant Assembly System Based on Wearable Devices. In International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (Vol. 84263, p. V002T07A005). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


  1. Lu, Y., Huang, H., Liu, C., & Xu, X. (2019). Standards for Smart Manufacturing: A review. 2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). Presented at the 2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). [DOI]


  1. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2015, September). Protecting intellectual property in a cloud manufacturing environment: Requirements and strategies. In IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems (pp. 404-411). Springer, Cham.
  2. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2015, June). Process and production planning in a cloud manufacturing environment. In ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (pp. V002T04A018-V002T04A018). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  3. Lu, Y., & Xu, X. (2014, December). Cloud manufacturing for a service-oriented paradigm shift. In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (pp. 1146-1150). IEEE.
  4. Lu, Y., Xu, J., & Xu, X. (2013, November). A new paradigm shift for manufacturing businesses. In ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (pp. V011T06A001-V011T06A001). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Xu, X. (2009). Integrating Advanced Computer-Aided Design, Manufacturing, and Numerical Control: Principles and Implementations (1st). IGI Global. Main Office. 701 E. Chocolate Avenue. Hershey, PA 17033, USA: IGI Global. Pages: 424. [PDF]

Book Chapters

Ahel Eroff, S., Polzar, J., Huang, H., Zhu, Z., Tomzik, D., Lu, Y., … Xu, X. (2020). Smart manufacturing based on Digital Twin technologies. In C. Machado, J. P. Davim (Eds.) Industry 4.0 Challenges, Trends, and Solutions in Management and Engineering (pp. ). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group. [DOI]